## Monday, 4 December 2017

### What is time?

Introduction
The question is very simple but very difficult to answer. No universally acceptable definition of time is given in the modern scientific technical parlances. However few features of time which are described by scientists and intellectuals are given below:-
What clocks measure - Albert Einstein, Donald Ivey, and others.
What prevents everything from happening at once - John Wheeler, and others.
A linear continuum of instants – Adolf Grunbaum
A certain period during which something is done- Medical Dictionary
A continuum that lacks spatial dimensions- Encyclopedia Britannica.
The above features of time can not materialize a conclusive definition of time. People visualize time according to their circumstances, culture, perception, and of course scientific inventions.

The contemporary concept of time
Our time calculation mechanism is based on the period which earth takes to rotate on its axis; and period which it takes to revolve around the sun. We divide one rotation period of earth in to 24 parts and one part is one hour. Likewise one complete revolution of earth around sun is considered to be one year. The year is divided in to 12 months. Both these periods are divided or sub-divided or multiplied to get smaller or bigger units. These various units of periods of rotation and revolution are called time.
Thus one thing is apparently clear that the concept of time which we developed is earth and sun centric. It means time, what we perceive today, is a period for which earth will rotate and revolve around its orbit and axis. The single rotation of earth on its axis is called a day which is uniform unit of time. Therefore as long as the earth will rotate and revolve, the phenomena of time will exist.
But suppose if due to any cosmological incident or otherwise earth stops it’s rotation or revolution i.e. earth becomes non-existence, will time come to an end? Or the pace of earth’s revolution and rotation is changed due to some reason then what will happen to the existing concepts of time? In these cases how the time will be calculated?
In a case if earth comes to an end then earth centric time will come to an end but time will exist in relation to other bodies which are revolving around a centre and rotating on its axis.
By this fact we may conclude that:-
1. The time is a relative concept, corresponding to a particular particle or body.
2. The rotation and revolution of particle or body is essential for the creation of time.
3. The time units will be unique and specific for every particle or objects because speed of rotation and revolution for an object is unique.
4. If the rotation or revolution of a particular object comes to an end i.e object becomes non-existential, the time in relation to that particular particle will come to an end.
Definition
On the basis of above features we may try to define time in the following simple manner - “The time or kala is an existential period of particular particle and one rotation period of that particular particle on its axis is single unit of time”. Thus every particle has its time period and a unit.
It is apparently clear that time corresponds to the life or existence of a particle or body, and will come to an end in relation to that particular particle, if it ceases to exist or come to an end.
The beginning and end of time
Now question arises when the time will begin? Answer is very simple. When the particle is born time will also begin. Thus creation also creates time and destruction brings its end.
The fusion and fission are two processes of creation and destruction in the cosmos. All objects and particles are the result of either fusion or fission. When two particles fuse a new particle is born and energy is released. Likewise in fission, bigger particle breaks in to two or more particles and again energy is released. These newly formed particle or bodies are not free or independent. They immediately after their creation start revolving around a central body and rotating on its axis. Their existence will depend on revolving and rotation. If due to any reasons rotation and revolution are stopped, existence of that particle will come to an end and it will be attracted by another particle. Ultimately it will fuse or submerge with bigger one and affect it. It is a continuous process of creation and destruction. So the time begins and comes to an end. The process is also described in Indian scriptures particularly in ‘Vishnu Purana’.
Indian concept of time
The 24th shloka, second chapter of ‘Vishnu Purana’ describes the Indian concept of time. Here the time is termed as ‘Kala’. The shloka is given below:-

विष्णेः  स्वरुपात्परतो हि ते  ‌‍द्धे
रुपे प्रधानं       पुरुषश्च विप्र l
तस्यैव ते अन्येन   धृते वियुक्ते
रूपान्तरं तद् द्धिज काल संज्ञम् l l (24)

हे विप्र! विष्णु के परम ( उपाधि रहित) स्वरुप से प्रधान और पुरुष – ये दो रुप  हुये; उसी (विष्णु) के जिस अन्य रुप के द्वारा वे दोनो (सृष्टि और प्रलयकाल) में संयुकत और वियुकत होते है, उस रुपांतर का नाम ही काल है l

O learned man! The two allotropic form of ‘Vishnu’ – ‘Pradhan’ and Purush’ evolved from absolute stage of ‘Vishnu’. Both allotropic forms with the help of another “Vishnu’ merge together (creation) and disintegrate (destruction) - this transformation is called ‘Kala’.
It means ‘Kala’ is the existence period of a particle and particle will exist as long as it revolves around a centre and rotates on its axis. One complete rotation on its axis will be one unit time in relation to that particular particle. As soon as the particle disintegrates, its ‘Kala’ will come to an end i.e. the end of time in relation to that particular particle.

Dimension of time- the ‘Kala chakra’
It’s another pertinent question that dimension of time is linear or circular. The modern civilization and science consider time a linear dimension preposition. But how it can be possible when we consider time unit as period taken by a particle in one complete rotation on its axis? Rotation is always circular it can never be linear. And if rotation can never be linear then how time can be linear. It is always in circle or cyclic in nature i.e cycle or ‘Kala Chakra’.

Conclusion
1. Time is a relative concept. It is related with a particle or body.
2. The time originates with the origin of a particle and come to an end with the end of particle.
3. Its particle or body specific i.e. every particle has its specific time.
4. One rotation of a particle on its axis constitute single unit of time.
5. The revolution period of a particle around a centre is the life of a particle. Its life will come to an end as soon as it stops revolution.
6. Time in relation to a particular particle will exist till particle exist. If the existence of particle comes to an end, the time for that particular particle will also end.
7. Time has a circular dimension not liner.

Time is due to existence of particle or object. It means time exists because earth exists i.e. first particle is created which in term results in to time. That is why, time follows us and not we follow time.

## Thursday, 5 October 2017

### The yoga is the basic and fundamental life-style and every person on this earth is yogi

To find the man’s equation with yoga it is important to know what the yoga is, why it is required, what its significance in day to day life is, how it can be performed to achieve desired results, and how it affects our daily life and life-style.
1. The word Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root word ‘Yujir’ meaning to bind, join, attach and yoke two or more than two objects or concepts. The tradition of Yoga in India is quite old when we find yoga descriptions in ‘Rigveda’, ‘Upanishads’, ‘Geeta’, etc. In simple words yoga means “to concentrates one’s attention or directs one’s energy in search of ultimate truth”. It is a too abstract a notion to be easily understood, therefore it is difficult to define these concepts. Each man has interpreted them according to his understandings.
Lord Shri Krishna in Bhagvad  Geeta has explained exhaustively various faculties of yoga where ‘yoga’ literally means union or join i.e. union with divine consciousness.

ea=ks y;ks gBks jkt;ksxkUrk Hkwfedk% dzekrA

,d ,o pqr/kkZ∙;a       egk;ksxs∙fe/kh;rsAA

meaning thereby ‘Mantra’, ‘Laya’, ‘Hatha’, and ‘Raj’, yoga are the four folds of  yoga , called ‘Yoga Chatushtang’, and all four together makes ‘Mahayoga’.

izR;kgkjLrFkk /;kua izk.k;keks∙Fk /kkj.kkA
rdZ'pSo  lekf/kÜp "k³+xks ;ksx  mP;srAA
i.e. ‘Pratyahar’, ‘Dhyan’, ‘Pranayam’, ‘Dharma’, ‘Tark’,and ‘Samadhi’ are six components of ‘KshadangYoga’.
Patanjali postulated concept of ‘Ashtang yoga’ where he defines yoga as:-

;ksxfÜpRro`fRrfujks/k%A 2A

1-2 yogah chittavrtti nirodhah
Yoga is the cessation of movements in the consciousness.
It is the art of studying the behavior of Consciousness, which has three functions; cognition, conation or volition, and motion. Yoga shows ways of understanding the functioning of mind, and helps to quite their vehement, leading one towards the undisturbed state of silence which dwells in the very seat of the consciousness.
Among various definitions of yoga it is unanimously agreed that ‘yoga’ is the unification of body, mind and soul.
2. Before proceeding further it is essential to know the fundamental nature of these three components i.e. body, mind and soul which are purported to be united in the yoga.
(a)Our body which seems us tangible is not so tangible. Its constituent units are cells along with various chemical compounds. Cells and chemical compounds are nothing but few agglomerate of atoms i.e. electrons, protons and neutrons. If we go beyond atom we will find fundamental particles like – neutrino, fermions, muons, quarks, mesons, photons, positron, boson, antimatter etc. These particles continuously movement and emit energy without touching each other. According to quantum theory, if by chance or accidentally two particles come in contact with each other, they are fused and enormous amount of energy is released and their existence is ceased. Thus our body is nothing but the agglomeration of few fundamental particles which constantly emit energy.
These fundamental particles are not stationary but always remain in motion and constantly emit radiations. They never touch each other. If by chance or due to any other reason any two particles come together and touch each other their existence is ceased and enormous amount of energy is released. Therefore whatever tangible we see, nothing is tangible and no two objects virtually touch each other. If by chance they touch each other their existence is ceased and enormous amount is energy is released.
(b) There is no universally agreed definition of what a mind is and what its distinguishing properties are but it is agreed that the mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment and memory. It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions.
Our minds are created within relationships – including the one that we have with ourselves. Each of us has a unique mind: unique thoughts, feelings, perceptions, memories, beliefs, and attitudes, and a unique set of regulatory patterns.  These patterns shape the flow of energy and information inside us, and we share them with other minds.
Thus mind is an abstract component of man which along with brain and nervous system and sense organs, process and regulates the flow of information and energy.
(c) the soul which has no documentary scientific evidence so far is believed to be some kind of energy by most of the communities world over. The Vedanta philosophy considers soul or atman a special type of fire or energy and is a spiritual essence of all creatures. The following shloka of Kathopanis (2.2.9) describes atman in the following ways:-

vfxz;ZFkSdk Hkqoua izfo’Vks
:ia :ia izfr:iks cHkwoA
,dLrFkk loZHkwrkUrjkRek

:ia :ia izfr:iks cgqPJAA
As the one fire, after it has entered the world, though one, takes different forms according to whatever it burns, so does the internal Ātman of all living beings, though one, takes a form according to whatever He enters and is outside all forms.
The above brief discussion of body, mind and soul clearly explain that they are nothing but various forms of energies.

3. Now question arises why this unification is needed at all? To answer this question we have to consider the nature of above these three objects which are to be united. All are energies. If these energies are not united they will work against each other and negate each other. The phenomena can be explained in a simple way like this – when three or four musical instruments are played in a harmony they make music. The quality of sound and music will depend on the perfection of harmony and synchronization of sounds coming from these musical instruments. If these instruments are played independently at different pitch and frequencies, they produce noise which irritates all. Likewise, these three energy components in man should remain in a minimum harmony otherwise his existence will come to an end. Our fitness, efficiency, output etc. will depend on the degree of unification of these three energies. As much as unification of these energies, the man will be perfect.
3.  After knowing the fundamental nature of body, mind and soul and significance of their unification a further question arises how this unification can be achieved? Answer to this question is yoga and particularly ‘Ashtang Yoga’ of Patanjali. He describes eight appendages of Yoga - the way through which one may reach to the ultimate goals of the Yoga in following shloka:-

;efu;ekluizk.kk;keizR;kgkj/kkj.kk/;kulek/k;ksM~"VkoM~xkfu  (29)

II.29 yama  niyama asana ‘Prana’yamaa pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhayah astau angani.
Yama-Restriant calls for the cultivation of five values :
(a) Non-violence-Ahimsa it does not mean merely abstinence from killing, but also refraining from injuring others either by word, through or deed.
(b) Truthfulness-Satya this also means to be true is one’s thoughts, words and deeds under all circumstances.
(c) Non-stealing-Asteya– non-claiming anything that does not belong to one. This means to control the propensity of the mind for greed.
(d) Continence-Brahamacarys - It is observation of chastity in thought word and deed. Continence re-creates the body, mind and thoughts, infusing them with a new vigour.
(e) Non-receiving of gifts-Aparigraha - remaining free and independent from the influence of others.
Niyama-Discipline - consstitutes five observances:
(a) Cleanliness-Sauca - not only external but also internal
(b) Contentment-Santosa-remaining satisfied with a few material necessities procured without great effort.
(c) Austerity-tapah-practicing control of body, speech and mind. It increases will power.
(d) Study of sacred books-Svadhyaya-study those books which help you to understand the reality of the absolute.
(e) Self-surrender to God-Isvarapranidhan by surrendering the fruits of actions to the Divine one, grows in devotion, which culminates in concentration on the chosen ideal.
Asana-posture-Raja Yoga stresses on a steady and pleasant posture with the limbs of the body remaining restful, and conducive to concentration and meditation. In health Yoga, however there are 84 postures of sitting as means to the practice of Yoga. Some of them are beneficial for the physical body. The idea is to gain control over the body.
Pranayamaa-Control of breath- the derivative from of Pranayamaa is  Prana and ayama i.e. a definite dimentions to Prana. The Prana signifies the life force and ayama means specific dimention. The breath supplies power to all parts of the body. When the breath is regulated the mind becomes calm. Pranayamaa consists of breathing in-puraka, restraining the breath-Kumbhaka and breathing out-Recaka in proper proportion.
Pratyahara-Withdrawal of mind - It consists of training the mind to detach itself at will from each sense organ. When we are a perfectly concentrated state of mind, we would not be influenced by any external noise.
Dharana-Concentration - It means the gathering of mental energies that are scattered in all directions and focusing them on an object for a certain length of time without interruption.
Dhyana-meditation - When concentration becomes effortless and continuous there begins meditation. Patanjli says “Meditation is the uninterrupted concentration of thought on its object. This itself turns into Samadhi when the object itself shines and the thought of meditation(and of the mediator) is lost as it were”
Samadhi-Absorption - It is attained when meditation becomes constant and continuous and the mind merges in the object of meditation.
By merely perusing these first six appendages of ashtang yoga it is very much clear that they are basic and primary tools or procedures or methods meant for disciplining oneself. Therefore Patanjali begins like this:-

अथ योगानुशासनम II

Atha yoganushasanam II
It is the first shloka of Patanjali which says that now we should discipline ourselves with the yoga. It means that yoga is intended to discipline ourselves. Without discipline man is a beast. Discipline makes us man.
The core component of yoga is ‘Dhyana’ which ultimate culminate in Samadhi. The first to six appendages are meant to facilitate Dhyana. What is this Dhyana? Before answering this question, the following related questions need some clarifications-
When a teacher says to his students – beta dhyan se padho – read with dhyana or attention.
When a mother says to his son – beta dhyan se kaam karo – do the job with dhyana or attention.
Drive on road with dhyana or attention to avoid accident.
Dhyan se meri baat ko suono – listen me with dhyana.
Sahee samay ka dhyan rakhana – keep proper or right time in mind.
Dhyaan se kaam na karane se baat bigad gayee – task spoiled due to not working with dhyana.
Dhyan se na padhane ke karan voh fail ho gaya – he failed because he did not study with dhyana.
In above phrases what does dhyana means which we taught to observe at all steps in our day to day life and without its observance we fail. Is this dhyana is different from the dhyana described in the yoga text? Can we perform anything without dhyana, if not then it is important to know what this dhyana is and how it can be achieved?
There can be no two types of dhyanas. It is impossible that dhyana in day to day routine works may be different from the dhyana of yoga. But one thing is very clear that our performance and output is directly related with the intensity of dhyana used in performing a particular task. We do not see the events occurring in front of us or do not listen what is said, if our dhyana is somewhere else. In brief more dhyana more accurate performance, less dhyana results may be otherwise. In nut shell it can be said that nothing can be performed without ‘dhyana’.
How this dhyana can be defined? In simple words dhyana is to keep or fix mind or consciousness in the present moment or in what we are doing at present. We cannot do anything if our mind or dhyana is not involved in the act. For instance if we study with perfect dhyana we can do mastery on a topic in a single reading otherwise it may require multiple readings. Reading without dhyana will be a waste of time and energy. Likewise our all actions and acts are dependent on dhyana. In fact we cannot perform any thing if we do not do it with dhyana. This is the significance of dhyana in our life.
Now we may ask how this dhyana can be achieved or attained. The first six appendages of ‘Ashtang Yoga’ are the tools or means to attain a definite stage of dhyana. This process is simplified in the following figure and ultimate dhyana culminates in the ‘Samadhi’.

Yama, niyama, asanas, pranayam, pratyahar and dharna all facilitate dhyana. Without their practice and adoption in daily life no dhyana can be achieved and our mind will remain instable and flickering. Without dhyana we cannot do anything, we cannot perform any thing and our existence as a man shall be ceased because we are not in a position to perform any act on his own. So that dhyana is most essential component in our life without which we cannot remain a man. Adherence to these six components of Ashtang yoga makes us man.
Now think – how long we may proceed if we always adhere to untruthful means. Our violent acts will make others revengeful and ultimately our existence may be endangered. We cannot survive for a long period on anything which does not belong to us or on stolen objects, articles and things. Amassing of wealth, fortunes, money etc. often degrade or degenerate us. Non-observance of celibacy will degrade us mentally, physically, morally and ultimately socially. Think seriously can we survive without adhering to the principles of ‘Yama’.
Likewise observance of ‘Niyamas’ is mandatory for us to remain a man. Cleanliness or ‘Saaucha’ is an integral part of our life. No one likes a person who is mentally or physically dirty. No one likes an un-clean person. Contentment stabilizes our personality. The austerity or ‘Tapah’ improve our personality. And surrender to Divine stabilizes us in society.
Can anyone claim that I never followed or adhered to these principles? Can anyone think his existence without adhering to these principles? Anyway, degree of adherence may vary from time to time or place to place or person to person but zero adherences are impossible. The degree of humane in a man is directly proportional to the degree of adherence to these principles i.e. more humane we are if we greatly adhere to these principles. Man will remain man till he observes these principles and as soon as he does not follow them he ceases to be a man.
The asanas make our body strong and sturdy, maintain flexibility and improve stamina. They are the excellent procedures and exercises for muscular flexibility, for various joint movements and for ideal body stretching without causing any damage or harm.  Suppose we have to work for three to four or five or more hours in sitting or standing posture and our body is not able to sustain that duration; is it possible for us to work with equal and stable efficiency. We cannot work with full and required attention or dhyana if our body does not physically fit or get pain while working in a definite pose. It is only and only the consistent and persistent practice of asanas makes it possible to do our various jobs efficiently without any distraction, pain or sufferings and with full perfection because full ‘Dhyan’ is possible only when our body is strong and sturdy.
Pranayam is not a mere breathing or retention of breath for some time. We do not inhale oxygen or gases present alone but we inhale all which is present in cosmos i.e. all gases, all particles, matters, radiations, energy etc. are taken inside our body during in-breathing. In the process we inhale cosmic energy which is termed as ‘Prana’. The ‘Prana’ is a kind of cosmic energy which is needed to keep us alive. An optimum amount of ‘Prana’ is always needed in the body and various parts of the body.
Asanas and Pranayam they are two tools which carry ‘Prana’ to various organs of body. The chitta and prana, they co-exist i.e. where chitta will go automatically prana will reach there and opposite to it where prana is chitta will be there. Further chitta is attracted by the strain or stress in the body. If any stress is present anywhere in our body automatically chitta will go there and consequently prana will reach at the point of stress because they co-exist. This trio, i.e. strain – chitta – prana is responsible for the movement of prana in our body. During practice of various asanas   we exert some bearable strain on our various body parts for a definite period so that chitta reaches there which ultimately carry prana with itself.
The above paragraph explains the true meaning of ‘Pranayam’ i.e. to give a definite dimention to prana.
Pratyahar is simply to detach ourselves from worldly affairs. If we are constantly and deeply remain attached to various worldly affairs all the time how can we concentrate ourselves on what we are doing at present moment. We cannot perform anything successfully if we do not detach ourselves from other affairs and concentrate on the activity of the present moment. Therefore pratyahar is must and essential for the activities of day to day life.
Dharana i.e. concentration - means the gathering of mental energies that are scattered in all directions and focusing them on an object for a certain length of time without interruption. When we focus our mental energies on some tasks or projects only then it can be performed. Without focusing performance is impossible rather to say the accuracy or perfection in performance is directly related with this concentration. The concentration or dharana cannot be accomplished without practicing pratyahar. That’s why dharana and pratyahar are said to be twin together.
Thus these six tools or appendages of ashtang yoga are made to keep us in the present moment. What we are doing in present moment can be done perfectly only if we concentrate on it. The all six appendages facilitate concentration or dhyana. Without mastery over them no dhyana can be achieved and without dhyana nothing can be performed. The dhyana separates man from other creatures. A man without dhyana is insane. He cannot perform anything on his own and he needs help of others for his routine jobs.
Finally, absolute dhyana turns in to Samadhi i.e. complete unification of body mind and soul. In this moment individual’s entity is lost and he is merged with the supreme cosmos.
Thus it is very clear that the life of every man on this earth is based on the principles of yoga. However adherence to these principles varies from man to man. No man can claim that his adherence is zero in this regard because zero adherences will convert a man to insane or beast.  More adherences more humanness, less adherences is less humanness. So it is we who can only determine the humanness in us by following and adhering to the principles of yoga. If we keep away from these principles or we are not yogi we cannot claim us to be a man. To be a perfect man it is mandatory for us to incorporate these principles of yoga in daily life or we should lead a life style which is based on the yoga because it is a basic and fundamental life style meant for man.

## Thursday, 24 August 2017

### Why ‘Padmasana’ is the ideal and most scientific sitting posture

In twenty-four hours, we either sit or walk or lay down. We sit an average of 11 to 12 hours a day. We sit more than we sleep, sit more than we stand or do any activity. Most of the time we sit on a chair. We sit in our cars. We sit at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. We sit to work. We sit to watch TV. We sit at the movie theater. We sit at our office.
What is the problem with so much sitting? The problem with so much sitting is that our bodies re not meant for it. For millions of years, we were in constant movement for 10-12 hours a day. Switch that to sitting for 10 hours, and there’s no amount of exercise we can do that can undo the damage. Even if, after our day at the office, we went to the gym for two hours, it wouldn’t negate the damage done by sitting. One study found that we can increase our lifespan by two years by sitting down three hours or less a day. Another study found that each hour spent watching TV after 25 reduces our life expectancy by 22 minutes. We sit everywhere and most of the time we sit on a sofa or chair. While we sit usually our body get following posture: -

 Chair Sitting Pose

The above sitting posture has following features:
1. Body weight rests on hip and upper femur i.e. thigh bone.
2. Lower spinal cord touches the surface on which we sit.
3. Most of the time spinal cord, neck and head lean in front and not straight as shown in the figure.
4. Foot – leg joint, leg - thigh joint and thigh – hip joint remains at ninety-degree angle.
5. Legs remain straight and perpendicular to earth.
6. Abdominal organs are compressed against each other.
7. Arteries and veins carrying blood are compressed at least at two places where body load is maximum.

Consequences: -

When we stand, our body works very differently than when we sit. Sitting for hours a day causes the following damages: -

Sitting compresses our body, slowing down digesting, leading to cramps, heart burn, constipation and bloating. This can be experienced while we do a car ride.
Posture gets worse, leading to strained neck, back and shoulders and our entire body degenerates when we sit 10 hours a day.
Standing requires tensing of the abdominal muscles while sitting leads to weak abs, leading to mobility issues.
Bones get weaker.
While we sit on chair heart is to create more pressure or work hard because blood is pumped against the gravity and six times blood flows at right angle from foot to heart. First at the joint between foot and leg, second at knee and third at the joint of thigh and abdomen.
Brain function slows down when we sit. Because our brain gets less blood and oxygen which results in to mood worsen.
Because blood flow slows down, we increase risk of heart disease.
Varicose veins develop.
Insulin is negatively affected by just one day of sitting 10 hours a day.
Excessive sitting results in to pedal edema. It is very well experienced by us when we take a long ride in a car and our legs start swelling.
Sitting increases our risk of cancer, for reasons we’re still speculating about. Perhaps it’s the antioxidant processes that are engaged when we are in movement.

Considering these damages led Dr. James Levine to coin the phrase “Sitting is the New Smoking!” whereas on the other hand, each cigarette reduces our life expectancy by 11 minutes.

Question arises what should be the appropriate and ideal sitting posture to avoid damage or reduce damage up to minimum. Because in modern life we cannot avoid twelve to fourteen hours sitting in a day.

In Indian traditions, the ideal sitting posture is ‘Padmasana’. It is a cross-legged sitting position where both legs are placed on opposite thighs, as shown in the following sketch: -

Features: -
1. Tail of back bone i.e. lumber and cocci does not touch the surface on which we sit.
2. Back bone i.e. spinal cord, neck and head remain straight.
3. Because of straight back bone various abdominal organs e.g. liver, pancreas, gall bladder, kidney, intestine etc. do not compress against each other.
4. Upper body weight rests on lower femur i.e. lower thigh bone near knees.
5. Foot, leg and thigh remain parallel to earth.
6. Both foot rest on cross upper thighs.
Consequences: -
Foot, leg and thigh remain parallel to earth, therefore minimum influence of gravity on blood circulation. Heart work load is reduced.
Because both foot rest on cross upper thighs, therefore sitting in this fashion causes no obstruction in any artery and vein. This result in to obstruction free movement of blood – heart work load is further reduced.
With straight back bone, respiratory functions are effectively performed and adequate gaseous exchange from body occurs.
Appropriate oxygen supply in all parts of the body.
Pedal edema i.e. swelling of legs is never possible because there is no obstruction in blood flow in legs.
Possibilities of varicose veins is reduced to minimum.
Because various abdominal organs e.g. liver, pancreas, gall bladder, kidney, intestine etc. do not compress against each other, therefore no adverse effect on digestion and digestive system.
No constipation, which is the root cause of our all ailments.
Muscles remain stretched, therefore, less chances of their weakening.
No knee and joint pain.

To sum up, this posture develops physical and mental stability, calms the nerves, and relieves the stiffness of knees and joints, and guards against rheumatism. The abdominal region receives a copious supply of the blood from the point where the abdominal aorta divides. The effect of this is to invigorate the coccyx region and the nerves of the sacrum. The entire body is kept in complete equilibrium.

So, the choice is ours. If we want to reduce the adverse effects of chair sitting pose, we should go for padmasana pose.

## Sunday, 2 April 2017

### मन्त्रों की प्रकृति

यजुर्वेद एवं अथर्ववेद में मंत्रो द्वारा चिकित्सा किये जाने का उल्लेख है. प्रत्येक अंग एवं प्रत्येक रोग का एक विशिष्ट मंत्र है जिसके शुद्ध उच्चारण से रोग का नाश होने के साथ – साथ सम्बंधित अंग भी पुष्ट होता है. यह दो कारणों से संभव है तथा समझ में आता है. प्रथम – जब मंत्र के माध्यम से हम किसी अंग विशेष की पुष्टि हेतु कमाना करते है तो हमारा अवचेतन मन (sub-conscious mind) इस दिशा में सक्रिय होकर अंग को स्वस्थ एवं नीरोग बना देता है. द्वितीय – मंत्रो का शुद्ध उच्चारण हमारे चेतना चक्रों को सक्रिय करके हमारी चेतना एवं उर्जा के स्तर का उच्चीकरण करते है जिसके परिणाम स्वरुप हम हष्ट – पुष्ट एवं नीरोग बने रहते है.

मंत्रो के शुद्ध उच्चारण के पूर्व उनकी प्रकृति जानना आवश्यक है क्योंकि गलत उच्चारण एवं प्रयोग लाभ के स्थान पर तत्काल अनिष्ट भी हो सकता है. मंत्र एक साधन हैं जिनके शुद्ध उच्चारण से हमारे ऊर्जा चक्र व्यवस्थित रूप से सक्रिय होकर  उच्च चेतना स्तर को प्राप्त करते है. अग्नि पुराण में मंत्रो की प्रकृति के बारे में उल्लेख किया गया है.

मंत्रो की तीन जातियां होती है – स्त्री, पुरुष और नपुंसक. जिन मन्त्रों के अंत में ‘स्वाहा’ पद का प्रयोग हो, वे स्त्री जातीय है. जिनके अंत में ‘नमः’ पद जुड़ा हो, वे मंत्र नपुंसक है. शेष सभी मंत्र पुरुष जातीय है.

मंत्रो के दो भेद है – ‘आग्नेय’ एवं ‘सौम्य’. जिनके आदि में ‘प्रणव’ लगा हो, वे आग्नेय है और जिनके अंत में प्रणव का योग हो, वे सौम्य कहे गए है. इनका जप इन्हीं दोनों के काल में करना चाहिए. सूर्य नाडी चलती हो तो आग्नेय मंत्र का और चन्द्र नाडी चलती हो तो सौम्य मन्त्रों का जप करे.

जिस मंत्र में तार (ॐ), अन्त्य (क्ष), अग्नि (र), वियत् (ह) – इनका बाहुल्येन प्रयोग हो, वह आग्नेय माना जाता है. शेष मंत्र सौम्य कहे गए है. ये दो प्रकार के मंत्र क्रमशः क्रूर और सौम्य कर्मो में प्रशस्त माने गए है. आग्नेय मंत्र प्रायः अंत में ‘नमः’ पद से युक्त होने पर ‘सौम्य’ हो जाते है और ‘सौम्य’ मंत्र भी अंत में ‘फट्’ लगा देने पर ‘आग्नेय’ हो जाते है.

यदि मंत्र सोया हो या सोकर तत्काल ही जगा हो तो वह सिद्धि दायक नहीं होता है. जब वाम नाडी चलती हो तो वह आग्नेय मंत्रो के सोने का समय हैऔर यदि दाहिनी नाडी चलती हो तो उनके जागरण का काल है. सौम्य मंत्र के सोने और जगाने का काल इसके विपरीत है. अर्थात वाम नाडी उसके जागरण का और दक्षिण नाडी उसके शयन का काल है. जब दोनों नाड़ियाँ साथ-साथ चल रही हों, उस समय आग्नेय और सौम्य दोनों मंत्र जगे रहते है. अतः उस समय दोनों का जप किया जा सकता है.

दुष्ट नक्षत्र, दुष्ट राशि तथा शत्रु रूप आदि अक्षर वाले मन्त्रों को अवश्य त्याग देना चाहिए.

इस प्रकार से मंत्रो के जाप के समय उनकी प्रकृति को द्रष्टिगत रखना चाहिए.

## Tuesday, 14 March 2017

### How we are connected with this cosmos – Swarodaya phenomena

The cosmos is an unique system of innumerable satellites, planets, suns, solar systems, galaxies, universes, dust particles and many more known or unknown objects and particles. They all are inter-connected and inter-related with each other. They exert some pressure or force among themselves so that they constantly remain in a systematic movement. Any change or any deviation in any way, in any object of the cosmos will influence each other i.e. all objects are inter-connected by a definite push or pull force.
Now question arise that man who considers himself most unique creature of the nature; is he also integrated with the cosmos system or he is independent of it? Whether any change in cosmos affects him or not and if affects how cosmos controls man i.e. what are the processes and means by which man is integrated with cosmos.
Some people say that cosmos have no impact over man and control of man by cosmos is an unscientific equation. But they fail to explain how our metabolism is influenced by circadian clock; how our blood pressure is influenced by the movement of sun and moon; how women’s menstruation cycle is controlled by moon; how our breathing pattern is controlled by the sun and moon; how and why most of the cases of heart failures occur after midnight; and so on?
In this article we will discuss the way how movement of sun and moon control our breathing pattern. We always breathe unequal i.e. our one nostril remains congested and other nostril remains open for inhaling and exhaling air. The equation changes alternatively after a definite period i.e. congested nostril will open and open nostril will get congested. This process of alternative opening and congesting of nostril continues till our death and is governed by the movement of sun and moon. This is an automatic natural cycle and any one can feel it any time. Any deviation from the breathing pattern controlled by sun and moon will turn man ill or sick. The process was learnt and understood by our ‘Rishis’ in ancient time and various treaties and commentaries were made on the subject. It was called ‘Swarodaya Vigyan’ or ‘Swara Yoga’.
The Vedic science of understanding the functioning of the nasal cycle is known as ‘Swarodaya vigyana’. ‘Swara’ means the sonorous sound produced by the air flow by nostrils during breathing; ‘Udaya’ means functioning state; and ‘Vigyana’ means knowledge.
It is said in human 7200 ‘nadis are present which channelize prana to every cell of our body. Among them ‘Ida’, ‘Pingala’ and ‘Sushumna’ are main and most important nadis. Ida represents moon, Pingala represents sun and both together constitutes Sushumna. Further when we breathe with left nostril, it is said that Ida nadi is functioning and when right nostril is active the Pingala nadi is said to be active. When both nostrils function with equal capacity the Sushumna nadi is said to be active.
This cycle of activeness and passiveness of nadis or nostrils is controlled by movement of sun and moon, day and night, and time. In ‘Bramha mahurt’ i.e. early morning first three days of ‘Shuklapaksha’ i.e. the bright fortnight, the Ida flows and then alternates with each other. 1st, 2nd, 3rd day Ida, and then 4th, 5th, 6th day Pingla, thus they keep alternating throughout the quarter. While, conversely, in ‘Krishnapaksha’ – dark fortnight, in Brahma muhurt i.e. early morning first three days, the Pingala flows first i.e.1st, 2nd and 3rd Pingala; and 4th, 5th, and 6th   day Ida, thus they alternate one after another in this fort night. This is depicted specifically in the following manner:-
A.   Bright fort night i.e. Shukla paksh:-
1. First, second and third day – Ida i.e. left nostril.
2. Fourth, fifth and sixth day – Pingala i.e. right nostril.
3. Seventh, eighth and ninth day - Ida i.e. left nostril.
4. Tenth, eleventh and twelfth day – Pingala i.e. right nostril.
5. Thirtieth, fourteenth and fifteenth day i.e. full moon - Ida i.e. left nostril.
B. Dark fort night i.e. Krishna paksh:-
1.  First, second and third day – Pingala i.e. right nostril.
2. Fourth, fifth and sixth day – Ida i.e. left nostril.
3. Seventh, eighth and ninth day - Pingala i.e. right nostril.
4. Tenth, eleventh and twelfth day – Ida i.e. left nostril.
5. Thirtieth, fourteenth and fifteenth day i.e. dark moon - Pingala i.e. right nostril.
One cycle involving Ida and Pingala congestion and de-congestion is completed in 5 ghadees. One ghadee is equal to 24 minutes and 60 ghadees are in 24 hours i.e. day and night. This is the time scale measurement of Vedic people. Therefore it is natural to inhale breath by one nostril is for two and a half ghadhee which comes approximately 60 minutes i.e. one hour. After that other nostril will decongest and inhale breathing will start from it and it will continue for next one hour. Thus in 24 hours 12 cycles of alternate breathing occurs.
What happens if we inhale equally with both nostrils? It is said Sushumna nadi is activated and functioning. It’s not normal state of breathing and only occurs when we are under extreme emotional pressures e.g. anger, fear and insecurity etc. This is most conducive state for yoga practices. Practicing yoga in other two states may harm us. Therefore nadi shodhan pranayam is done before practicing yoga i.e. anulom-vilom pranayam. By practicing anulom-vilom pranayam normal breathing with both nostrils starts i.e. sushumna nadi becomes activate.
It is further said that inhaling by left nostril activates right half of our brain and when inhaling is done by right nostril left half of our brain is active. This alternative activeness and passiveness of two half of our brain is a biological requirement which is made possible by alternate breathing only.
Why and how it happens it is not known so far. But it happens. Any person may experience it, and if he possesses normal health and emotionally quite, will find the same sequence of congestion and decongestion in breathing, as described above. Very little work is done in this regard. It is natural and if a man does not inhale and exhale according to above pattern, it is said, he will become ill or sick. The continuous irregular pattern of breathing may turn fatal. No man is exception to it and patterned breathing is also found among several animals also.
It is clear from the above discussion that our breathing is patterned and controlled by time, day and movement of sun and moon. Sun and moon control earth and any change of any kind in them affect physical and biological characteristics on earth. In turn all three are controlled by various celestial bodies present in universe and cosmos.
Thus ultimately we are as a man also controlled by cosmos in a continuous regular way. We are not independent of cosmos and any activity anywhere, whatever its intensity may be; it has specific impact on us. However we are unable to sense it. That’s what we are in a specific ‘laya’ or rhythm with the cosmos and we exist as long as this rhythm continues. When this ‘laya’ or rhythm is broken the ‘pralay’ or destruction occurs and our existence comes to an end. Therefore it is a must to remain in a perfect rhythm with the cosmos in order to exist as such.

## Tuesday, 17 January 2017

### THERAPEUTIC DESCRIPTION OF SOME YOGASANAS

As for as ‘Asanas’ are concerned the ‘Gheranya Samhita’ describe them in the following shloka-
vklukfu leLrkfu ;koUrks tho tUro%A
prqj'khfr y{kkf.k f'kosukfHkfgrkfu p AA
rs"kka e/;s fof'k"Vkfu "kksM~'kksua 'kra d`reA
rs"kka e/;s eR;Zyksds }kf='knklua 'kqHk~eAA
Asanani Samastani Yavanto jeev Jantavah I
Chaturesheet Lakshani Shivenabhi hitani  ch II
Tesham madhye   Vishishtani  Shodshonam shatam Kritram I
Tesham   madhye  martyuloke dwatrishdasanam shubham II
Meaning there by number of ‘Asans’ is equal to number ‘jeev yonis' – animals i.e. 84 lacs. Out of which only 84 are important and 34 ‘Asanas’ are to be practiced daily.
Patanjali describes ‘Asanas’ in the following manners:-
fLFkjlq[keklue~ (46)
11-46sthira sukham asanam
Asana is perfect firmness of body, steadiness of intelligence and benevolence of spirit.
iz;Ru'kSfFkY;kuUrlekifRrH;ke~A47A
11-47 prayatna saithilya ananta samapattibhyam
Perfection in an asana is achieved when the effort to perform it becomes effortless and the infinite being within is reached.
rrks }U}kufHk?kkr%A48A
11-48 tatah dvandvah anabhighatah
From then on, the sadhaka is undisturbed by dualities.
In fact, the ‘Asanas’ are the controlled stretching and relaxing exercises of a particular portion of body or tissue. Stretching and relaxing – one after other – tone up the body or organ; improve blood circulation; and activate cellular processes. Improved blood circulation further improves cellular transport, resulting into more active cellular metabolism. Finally, after every ‘Asanas’ one should breath in and out at least five to ten times in most relaxed manner.
This posture develops physical and mental stability, calms the nerves, and relieves the stiffness of knees and joints, and guards against rheumatism. The abdominal region receives a copious supply of the blood from the point where the abdominal aorta divides. The effect of this is to invigorate the coccyx region and the nerves of the sacrum. The entire body is kept in complete equilibrium.
The meditation postures, such as Sidhasana, Svastika and Samasana all have the same therapeutic effects.
Siddhasana
This posture develops physical and mental stability, calms the nerves, cures stiffness in the knees and joints and prevents rheumatism. The pelvic region is abundantly supplied with blood from the point where the abdominal aorta divides, toning up the coccyx region and sacrum nerves. The entire body is kept in perfect equilibrium.
Supta-Vajrasana
This is an excellent exercise for the ankles, knees and thighs. It is recommended for those who lack vital energy, because this asana makes the blood flow into the trunk of the body, stimulating and regenerating the solar plexus. The exercise tones up the subcutaneous nerves, and is recommended to those whose glands are sluggish or who suffer from constipation.

Ardha-Matsyendrasana
Swami Kevalayananda writes in his book, “we should exercise the spinal column in all possible directions if we wish to keep it in perfect health.”
There are six ways of bending the spinal column: forwards, backwards, to both sides, and twisting to the left and right. Sarvangasana, Halasana, Paschimottanasana and Yoga mudra strengthen the spinal column by bending it forwards. Matsyasana, Bhujangasana, Salabhasana and Dhanurasana make it more flexible by bending it backwards.
Ardha-Matsyendrasana transmits to the spinal column to sideways twists, one to the left and other to the right. It is, therefore, a very useful asana. It has great curative value and corrects spinal deformities. It has beneficial effect on the gall-bladder, spleen, kidneys and bowels.
Halasana
This asana is extremely beneficial to the spinal column. The whole region receives an abundant supply of blood which revitalizes the nerves and muscles of the back. Exhaustion, any fatigue quickly disappear. The position also has a regenerating effect on the glandular system and clears up menstrual disorders. When practiced regularly the exercise prevents fat forming on the stomach, hips and waist.
Those who have a stiff spinal column should practice this asana with great care, without ever straining and avoiding all brusque movements. If practiced regularly and persistently this exercise will make even the stiffest spine flexible. Viparitakarani is a good preparation for Halasana.
Paschimotanasana
When practiced in moderation (three minutes a day maximum, otherwise the effect is reversed) Paschimottanasana is a good remedy for constipation. All the posterior back muscles are strengthened, thus preventing the formation of fat around the stomach. This asana has a particularly salutary effect on the spinal column. Blood rushes to the gonads, prostate gland uterus and bladder to improve their state of health. The posture regenerates the kidneys and digestive organs. It can check and even cure diabetes.
In leaning forward the knees must remain flat to allow the muscles on the legs and the lumber region to be fully stretched. All brusque movements are to be avoided and one should not strain or force even if at the beginning one finds it difficult to lean forward. A little patience and perseverance will help to get rid of all stiffness.
This exercise tones up the organs in the abdomen and ensures the proper functioning of the liver and spleen. It is excellent for those suffering from digestive troubles.
Like the Paschimottanasana this asana has a beneficial effect on the spinal column allowing the muscles in the back and legs to be stretched to their fullest extent. Sudden movements of the spinal column should be avoided.
Bhujangasana
During the practice of Bhujangasana the muscles of the back come into play, exerting pressure on the vertebrae from the neck down to the lower part of the spinal column and provoking a copious supply of blood to this region thus toning it up.
This asana may correct discs that have slipped slightly. It soothes backaches, renders the spinal column more flexible and keeps it in good health. The exercise also has a beneficial effect on the kidneys, adrenal glands and stimulates digestion.
Those who have a stiff spinal column should start slowly and carefully sudden movements are to be avoided.
Salabhasana
This is an excellent exercise for the muscles in the back arms and abdomen. It fortifies the latter and has beneficial effect on the digestive organs, curing the most stubborn constipation. This asana brings a large supply of blood to the kidneys thus cleaning and regenerating them.
Care must be taken not to tire the lungs by prolonging the posture or raising the legs brusquely.
Dhanurasana
This asana loosens up the spinal column and strengthens the nervous centres. It also recharges the solar plexus with vital energy and tones up the abdominal organs. The exercise stimulates the endocrine gland and is excellent for women suffering from irregular or faulty menstruation. It also prevents fat forming around the stomach and hips.
This exercise requires a certain amount of effort. Be careful of the joints and above all take it very easy.

Mayurasana
This posture requires great determination and concentration. It is an excellent way of bringing the body into equilibrium and fortifying the hands wrists and forearms.
Practice of this asana will exert pressure inside the abdomen thus toning up the organs and muscles in this area of the body. The increased supply makes them healthier and cures constipation.
This is a very difficult Asana and should therefore be practiced with great care. It requires very flexible hands and wrists so watch out for the joints.
Sarvangasana
It is a known fact that our state of health depends to a large extent on the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. In this posture the thyroid receives an abundant supply of fresh blood owing to the regenerating effect of Sarvangasana on the thyroid the organism is kept in perfect health. Regular practice of the asana will make the symptoms of premature aging produced by thyroid disorders completely disappear. One regains youthfulness wrinkles soften and the body stays supple to a very great age.
This posture is also a blessing to those with ovary problems and ensures the good functioning of the sexual glands both male and female. The shoulder stands clear congestion in the legs and has salutary effect on veins and haemorrhoids.
Owing to its regenerative effect on the nervous system Sarvangasana and indeed Sirshasana can cure insomnia and Sirshasana is in the position of the head. Hence the first has more effect on the thyroid. While the second influences the brain. As both of these asanas require the body to be in a vertical position the therapeutic effect of Sarvangasana are also produced by Sirshasana since the position is similar.
Matsyasana
This exercise enlarges the thoracic cage and allows deeper breathing. It renders the neck supple and removes all aches and stiffness. The neck muscles are fully stretched thus provoking an abundant flow of blood to this region of the body and regenerating the thyroid and tonsils. This asana also fortifies the muscles in the back and has a beneficial effect on the spinal column.
If the lotus position is too difficult this asana may be performed sitting cross-legged.
Savasana
Often a tensed body and irregular breathing are the cause of bad health. Rhythmic breathing in Savasana is, therefore extremely salutary for the entire body provided if it is taught properly by an instructor. By resting in this way, one avoids all mental stress. The heart and nervous system are calmed and the circulation becomes regular.
After a few minutes relaxation in Savasana the whole organism is recharged with ‘Prana’ i.e. renewed energy and regenerative force. A quarter of an hour’s rest of this kind eliminates the toxins that have accumulated in the blood.
Experiments performed at the Yoga Research Institute, Lonavla, have proved that it is possible by Yogic relaxation to cure high blood pressure insomnia nervous disorders and certain types of nervous depression.
Purnamatsyendrasan
Put left knee on the ground to your left side. Clasp the right calf or heel, taking the left hand to the right side of the right knee. Put your right hand on the waist. Tum the part of body from waist to head to right side. Keep your gaze on the tip of the nose. Repeat it after 10-15 seconds changing feet.
This Yogasana accentuates the circulation of blood towards, pancreas, naval, lungs, arms waist, thighs all parts of stomach, liver, parathyroid, kidneys, urinary bladder small intestines, the root of thighs and uterus. The nerves and the muscles related to these parts are strengthened and diseases related to them are removed. This Yogasana is particularly beneficial in cases of diabetes, trouble in breathing, obesity, diseases related to uterus, hernia and irregular monthly course.
Taking hands behind waist, foot with left hand and that of right foot with right hand. This Yogasana very favourably affects liver, kidneys and spleen that is enlarged. It strengthens the muscles and nerves of hands, feet, shoulders and the region of waist as blood circulation is accelerated.
Kurmasana
Bending knees,settle on the heel. The claws of feet remain free and straight. Put both elbows in the side of naval. Close fingers in the form of fist,keeping thumb inside. Put the fists on knees. Then learn forward,exhaling slowly. Bending neck,put head on feet in such a way as feet touch the hair. This Yogasana strengthens the muscles and nerves of neck, spine, shoulders and stomach. It is particularly effective on thyroid and parathyroid. Spine gets flexible.
Ustrasana
To practice this Yogasana bend on the knees and close to the heels with your hands, turning spine and neck backward. This Yogasana accelerates blood circulation in thyroid, parathyroid, shoulders, spine and waist with the result that these organs start functioning as the muscles are stretched and spread.
Yogmudra
Sit in the position of a Vajrasana. From fists keeping the thumb inside and put them at the side of naval. Then exhale and bend downward and put head on the ground. Keep breathing even while practicing Yogasana for long time. This Yogasana is particularly useful in parts of stomach like liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys and sexual organs. Nervous system, particularly lambo-sacral nerves get strengthened. This Yogasana is very effective in adrenal gland, gonads, pancreas and some endocrine glands, gastric trouble, indigestion and diseases related to women.
Garbhasana
Bend right foot and put it on the left thigh. Stretch right hand out of right thigh and calf of the leg. Then put left foot in the right thigh and stretch left hand out of left thigh and calf. Place buttocks on the ground, raise the front part of body and clasp cheeks or ears with both hands. This Yogasana accelerates blood circulation in thighs, hands, calf, part of stomach, the region of waist and spine. Muscles and nerves of all these organs get strengthened. Liver, kidneys, spleens and pancreas start functioning in a better way. This Yogasana is the best for and the most useful to women. It is highly effective in hernia, gonads, adrenal, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid and diseases related to stomach and digestion.
Gomukhasana
Spread both the feet to the front. Bend the left foot and put it under the right buttock and the right foot near the left buttock, taking it from above the left foot. The right knee should be on the left knee. Put palm on the back, taking the right hand above. Hook the left hand, taking of front below, with the fingers of the right hand. Repeat the Yogasana changing the position of feet. This Yogasana accelerates blood circulation in chest, heart, thighs, waist, shoulders, spine and knees. The muscles and nerves of these organs get strengthened. Efficiency of lungs is increased. This Yogasana is very effective in removing heart diseases, tuberculosis, hernia, asthma and blood pressure.
Sampurna Shalbahasana
Lie down on stomach. Put hands near armpit. Attach palm to the ground. Raise hands, feet, head and chest above at the same time. This Yogasana accelerates blood circulation in the region of waist thighs, spine, liver, pancreas and kidneys and their muscles and tissues are strengthened. Digestive system begins to work properly and gastric trouble is removed. Urinary bladder and kidneys are favourably affected. Diseases related to waist, kidneys, liver, uterus, colon, stomach, eyes, lungs, spine, feet, calf, ankles and thighs are removed.
Chakrasana
Lie down on back. Bent feet and attach heels to buttocks. Take and attach heels to buttocks. Take hands from under the shoulders and put palms on the ground in such a way that the fingers are directed to shoulders. No raise waist and shoulders as far as possible. Only hands and feet will remain on the ground. Try to bring claws of hands and feet as close as possible.
Pavanmuktasana
Lie down straight. Bend left foot from knee and clasp calf with hands, exhale, press stomach and attach head to knees. Keep the right foot straight or move it in circles 5 times from left to right and 5 times from right to left. Repeat this action changing feet. Then join both the feet and press stomach with them. Make actions like swinging. This Yogasana helps in bringing out gas from stomach. Parts of digestive system get strength, and constipation is removed. Efficiency of liver, Kidneys and pancreas is increased. This Yogasana makes a favourable effect on thyroid and parathyroid. Blood circulation in thighs, shoulders and stomach is increased. Gastric trouble, constipation pain in waist and spine is removed. This Yogasana strengthens nerves and muscles.
Naukasana
Take hands straight in the direction of ears. Raise hands, feet and head all at a time, as upward as possible. Only the naval is attached to the ground. Keep arms attached to ears. Keep hands straight. This Yogasana increases the power of digesting food. The secretion of digestive hormones in liver, stomach, gall bladder and pancreas is balanced. Efficiency of spleen and kidneys is increased. Blood circulation in shoulders, spinal cord, waist, neck and chest is increased. The muscles of these organs get strengthened and nerves get flexible.
Karnapidasana
Maintain the position of Halasana and press ears with both knees. This Yogasana very favourably affects thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, endocrine glands, spine, heart and lungs. Blood circulation in the direction of shoulders, neck and waist is accelerated and muscles and nerves of these organs are strengthened. They also get flexible. This Yogasana removes diseases related to abdomen, waist and spine.
Shirsasana
Spread a blanket, folded four times, on the ground. Put your knees near the blanket, Join fingers of both hands and put them on the blanket. Put forehead on the ground, near the fingers. Support head by fingers. Now, putting some pressure on the forehead, raise your feet straight. In the initial stage, practice this Yogasana against a wall. In the beginning practice it for half a minute and then extend time gradually up to 10 minutes. This Yogasana must be practiced in the morning only. Those who cannot practice it, are advised to practice. This Yogasana is said to be the best and the most effective of all Yogasanaa. It mainly affects endocrine glands, pituitary gland and pineal gland. Pituitary gland secrets hormones that control all the endocrine glands and some other hormones that affect and govern all the physical, mental and spiritual activities of life. Regular practice of this Yogasana removes night pollution, weakness of sperms dyspepsia, dwarfishness, sleeplessness lethargy, laziness and irregularity of monthly course. This Yogasana helps in bringing about equanimity in life.
Bakasana

Stand up. Kneel from waist and put fingers on the ground. Balance the body in a parallel position, resting knees and calves on the elbows. The weight of the body will be laid on the palms. Heels should be close to buttocks, parallel to elbows. Blood circulation is accelerated in palms, chest, fingers, wrists, elbows, armpits, shoulders and abdomen. With the result that diseases related to these parts of the body are removed and their muscles and nerves get strengthened.
(excerpts from my thesis)